Training Load Assessment

Monitoring intensity level

For monitoring intensity level, heart rate, color coded heart rate zones, %heart rate max and % VO2max can be used. We recommend to monitor the following issues from the heart rate data:

  • See if the players really go to the “red zone” in sprints – does it happen in the beginning and does it last all the way till the end of the workout.
  • Make sure the intensity level is low enough during the easy training
  • See how quickly heart rate recovers during the recovery breaks
  • Does the intensity level remain in the optimal level across the whole training

Example: Two players reached different training effect score from the workout (3.2 vs 4.0). All the interval sprints were performed in high intensity training zone (red). The reason was found from the heart rate recovery between the sprints. Player A recovered more quickly between the sprints whereas player B stayed in the high intensity training zone also during the recovery breaks.



Training Effect Monitoring

Training Effect provides insights from training sessions on which physiological capabilities are being trained and how much. Training Effect forms an intelligent and multidimensional system which is able to track both aerobic and anaerobic training effects and the distribution between these two.

  • Monitor how hard your training session is, i.e. the overall Training Effect in real time on a scale from 0.0 to 5.0
  • See the aerobic and anaerobic training load evolved from warm-ups to high intensity drills during the session
  • Receive instant feedback reporting for coaches and players

Aerobic Training Effect is based on EPOC prediction and it is describing how the workout improved athletes’ endurance capacity. Anaerobic Training Effect is based on high intensity interval analytics describing how the workout is affecting on repeated sprinting ability.

Goal of Training Workout TE:
Maximal aerobic fitness Constant pace / interval
Work/rest ratio 2:1
TE 3.5-5.0
Aerobic 70% / Anaerobic 30%
Basic aerobic condition, recovery training Low intensity / long duration TE 1.5-2.5
Aerobic 100% / Anaerobic 0%
Speed, strength, power Short sprints / long recovery breaks
Work/Rest Ratio 1:4
TE 1.5-2.5
Aerobic 30% / Anaerobic 70%
Anaerobic power All out short / medium duration intervals
Work/Rest ratio 1:2
TE 3.5-5.0
Aerobic 30% / Anaerobic 70%


Real Time Monitoring

The real time Training Effect monitoring provides tools for coaches to identify individual training responses and to make sure the athletes reach the goals set for the workout.



From the group report we recommend to check the following issues:

  • What was the team average in TE, did it correspond the goal set for the workout (see table above)?
  • Are there big differences in values between players?
  • To detect early signs of overtraining, check the recovery status (overnight recovery test) for the players with highest and lowest training load.



TRIMP (Training Impulse) is a method of quantifying training load. The accumulation curve for TRIMP is designed to model the lactate accumulation curve increasing exponentially to intensity level (Originally adopted from Dr.Bannister). The key difference  to EPOC is that TRIMP does not decrease during recovery breaks and it is best suited for interval training. Based on our data browsing with the top soccer, ice-hockey and rugby teams, the following scale is suggested for 75-90min training sessions:

Hard training: TRIMP >140
Moderate training: TRIMP 70-140
Easy training: TRIMP < 70

Energy expenditure

Energy expenditure can be monitored in real time and in postanalysis. The information through fitness report and multidata export report provides information on total energy expenditure and distribtion of carbohydrates and fats. This information helps the players and team nutritionists to plan the proper nutrition strategy for ensuring the optimal recovery from workouts and games.