Scientific Publications Utilizing Firstbeat Bodyguard (2) Device for Tracking HRV

The publications section presents studies where Firstbeat solutions have been exploited.  The different scientific contexts include for example occupational health care, sleep research, psychotherapy, behavioral research, and sports coaching. Firstbeat methods have been used for research in over 100 universities and research institutions across Europe, North America, and Australia.

Title Author Year Journal/Proceedings Study design & Population Category Physiological parameter(s) Insights on findings
Resting state heart rate variability and false memories
Feeling N, Williams DP, Speller LF, Loftus EF, Koenig J & Thayer JF 2021 International Journal of Psychophysiology, 159, 17-22 Experimental study; Undergraduate students, n = 71 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard2 was used for data collection in a study assessing a possible link between resting HRV with memory encoding and retrieval.n = 71 undergraduate students.
Ambulatory Heart Rate Variability in Schizophrenia or Depression
Bengtsson J, Olsson E, Igelström H, Persson J & Bodén R 2021 J Clin Psychopharmacol. 41(2): 121–128. Cross-sectional study; 80 patients and 64 healthy controls, n = 144 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard2 was used to collect HRV data in a study exploring how demographic, lifestyle, and pharmacological factors contribute to the HRV metrics in schizophrenia and depression patients.
Dissociating cognitive, behavioral and physiological stress-related responses through dorsolateral prefrontal cortex inhibition Era V, Carnevali L, Thayer JF, Candid M, Ottaviani C 2021 Psychoneuroendocrinology, Volume 124 Experimental study; Students, n = 32 Measurement RR-intervals Bodyguard2 was used for data collection in a study exploring the effects of noninvasive brain stimulation techniques in the regulation of stress-related cognitive processes and physiological responses.
Religiously oriented mindfulness for social workers: effects on mindfulness, heart rate variability, and personal burnout
Trammel RC, Park G & Karlsson I 2020 Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, DOI: 10.1080/15426432.2020.1818358 Intervention study; adults, n = 22 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard2 was used to collect HRV data in a study exploring the effects of a Religiously Oriented Mindfulness (ROM) on mindfulness, cardiac vagal tone, and personal burnout.
Social anxiety symptoms, heart rate variability, and vocal emotion recognition in women: evidence for parasympathetically-mediated positivity bias
Madison A, Vasey M, Emery CF & Kiecolt-Glaser JK 2020 Anxiety, Stress & Coping, DOI: 10.1080/10615806.2020.1839733 Experimental study; Female undergraduates, n = 124 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 was used to record RR-intervals in a study that examined the associations among social anxiety symptoms, HRV, and vocal emotion recognition.
The Effects of Presleep Slow Breathing and Music Listening on Polysomnographic Sleep Measures – a pilot trial
Kuula L, Halonen R, Kajanto K, Lipsanen J et al. 2020 Nature Scientific Reports 10:7427 Randomized controlled trial; Young adults, n = 20 Measurement HRV The study used Firstbeat Bodyguard2 and Firstbeat Cloud for HRV analysis when exploring the effects of presleep slow breathing and music listening conditions on sleep quality, EEG power spectral density and HRV.
Equal health at work? Protocol for an observational study of work organisation, workload and musculoskeletal complaints among women and men in grocery retail
Mathiassen SE, Bolin M, Olofsdotter G & Johansson E 2020 BMJ Open, 10(1): e032409. Description of study protocol The study describes a study protocol for a study that will use Firstbeat Bodyguard2 to explore workloads in men and women working at grocecy retail.
Cardioceptive accuracy is associated with arousal but not with valence and perceived exertion under physical load
Köteles F, Teufel B, Körmendi J, Ferentzi E & Szemerszky R 2020 “Psychophysiology, 57 (9):
e13620″
Experimental study; Young adults, n = 67 Measurement HR HR was measured using Firstbeat Heart rate monitoring belts and Sports software in a study assessing the associations between cardioceptive accuracy and characteristics of the affective response during physical activity.
A Contact-Free, Ballistocardiography-Based Monitoring System (Emfit QS) for Measuring Nocturnal Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability: Validation Study
Vesterinen V, Rinkinen N & Nummela A 2020 JMIR Biomed Eng 5(1):e16620 Evaluation study; Healthy participants, n = 20 Measurement RR-intervals Bodyguard2 was used as an ECG-based reference device for ballistocardiography-based HR monitoring system.
Exploring the relationship between geomagnetic activity and human heart rate variability Mattoni M, Ahn S, Fröhlich C et al. 2020 Eur J Appl Physiol 120, 1371–1381 Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 20 Measurement RR-intervals Bodyguard2 was used for collecting data for 30 consecutive days in a study exploring the effects of geomagnetic/solar activity on HRV.
Reliability of the BodyGuard2 (FirstBeat) in the detection of heart rate variability Palmer AR, Distefano R, Leneman K B & Berry D 2020 Open Science Framework (OSF) Cross-sectional study; Children, n = 15 Validation RR-intervals The study evaluated the reliability of Bodyguard2 in active and resting conditions in 4 to 6 years old children. The study reported that BG2 provided highly similar HRV results than gold-standard ECG method.
Acute physiological and affective responses in postmenopausal women during prescribed and self-selected aerobic exercise
Batista DR, Meneghel V, Ornelas F, Moreno MA, Lopes CR & Braz TV 2019 Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 19 (2): 28-38 Experimental study; Active post-menopausal women, n=30 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Sports heart rate belts were used to collect HR data in a study which aimed to compare physiological and psychological responses in prescribed and self-selected aerobic sessions in postmenopausal women for optimizing physical activity adherence.
Autonomic Responses to Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Needle Electrolysis: Effect of Needle Puncture or Electrical Current? Bermejo PG, De La Cruz Torres B, Orellana JN & Cabello MA 2018 The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 24: 1 Experimental case-control study; Male football players, n=36 Measurement RR-intervals The study used Firstbeat Bodyguard when exploring if the changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic activity (analyzed through HRV) during ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is due to the effect of needle puncture only or of the PNE technique per se where the puncture and galvanic current are combined.
High intensity intermittent games-based activity and adolescents’ cognition: moderating effect of physical fitness
Cooper S, Dring K, Morris J, Sunderland C, Bandelow S & Nevill M 2018 BMC Public Health 18:603 Cross-sectional study; Adolescents, n=39 Measurement RR-intervals The subjects performed an exercise and resting trial in randomized order and cognitive tasks before and after trials. During 60-min game-based activity heart rate was monitored with Firstbeat team sport system. Exercise trial enhanced working memory and executive function, but had no effect on attention and information processing speed.
The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists
Woods A, Rice A, Garvican-Lewis L, Wallett A, Lundy B, Rogers M , Welvaert M , Halson S , McKune A &Thompson K 2018 PLoS ONE 13(2) Cross-sectional study; Athletes, n=13 Measurement RR-intervals Trained male cyclist performed a 6-week training program, where training load varied from 80% to 150% compared to baseline week. HRV was measured with Firstbeat’s HR strap during RMR measurements. Proactive monitoring of HRV, energy intake, body mass, power output, mood state during intensified training period may be beneficial to optimize training adaptations.
Long-Term Study of Heart Rate Variability Responses to Changes in the Solar and Geomagnetic Environment
Alabdulgader A, McCraty R, Atkinson M, Dobyns Y, Vainoras A, Ragulskis M & Stolc V 2018 Scientific Reports 8 (2663) Experimental study; Healthy adults, n=16 Measurement RR-intervals The study examined relationships between solar and magnetic factors and the time course and lags of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to changes in solar and geomagnetic activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded with Firstbeat Bodyguard for 72 consecutive hours each week over a five-month period in 16 participants in order to examine ANS responses during normal background environmental periods.
Associations of Physical Fitness and Body Composition Characteristics with Simulated Military Task Performance
Pihlainen K, Santtila M, Häkkinen K & Kyröläinen H 2018 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 32 (4), 1089-1098 Cross-sectional study; Soldiers, n=81 Applied use HR The study examined the associations of body composition and physical fitness with anaerobic performance. Firstbeat PRO was used for heart rate analysis.
Taekwondo Fighting in Training Does Not Simulate the Affective and Cognitive Demands of Competition: Implications for Behavior and Transfer
Maloney M, Renshaw I, Headrick J, Martin D & Farrow D 2018 Frontiers in Psychology 9 (25) Cross-sectional stydy; Athletes, n=10 Measurement HR Firstbeat’s heart-rate monitors was used to measure pre-fight data. Fighting in training does not have same demands than in competition. Lower levels of e.g. arousal and heart rate may affect on skill transfer from training to competition.
Neural Mechanisms of Qigong Sensory Training Massage for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Feasibility Study
Jerger K, Lundegard L, Piepmeier A, Faurot K, Ruffino A, Jerger M & Belger A 2018 Global Advances in Health and Medicine 7, 1-10 Cross-sectional study; Children, n=20 Measurement RR-intervals Bodyguard 2 was used to monitor RR-intervals for HRV analysis of autistic children in a study exploring the feasibility of Qisong Sensory Training.
Rating of perceived exertion is a stable and appropriate measure of workload in judo
Bromley S, Drew M, McIntosh A & Talpey S 2018 Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport Cross-sectional study; Athletes, n=29 Measurement HR Firstbeat’s technology was used to monitor heart rate in judo.
Diminished heart rate complexity in adolescent girls: a sign of vulnerability to anxiety disorders?
Fiol-Veny A, Torre-Luque A, Balle M & Bornas X 2018 Anxiety, Stress & Coping 31 (4), 375-386 Cross-sectional study; Adolecents, n=95 Measurement RR-intervals Bodyguard 2 was used for data collection during school. Highly anxious subjects had lower HRV than low-anxiety group, and girls are more vulnerable to developing anxiety disorders than boys.
In‐season changes in heart rate recovery are inversely related to time to exhaustion but not aerobic capacity in rowers
Haraldsdottir K, Brickson S, Sanfilippo J, Dunn W & Watson A 2018 Scand J Med Sci Sports 28, 418-424 Cross-sectional study; Athletes, n=22 Measurement HR Firstbeat’s chest strap monitor was used to collect HR in a study exploring if in‐season changes in heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to aerobic fitness and performance in collegiate rowers.
No effect of a pulsed magnetic field on induced ischemic muscle pain. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Szemerszky R, Szabolcs Z, Bogdány T, Jánossy G, Thuróczy G & Köteles F 2018 Physiology & Behavior 184, 55-59 Randomized controlled trial; University students, n=70 Applied use HR Pulsed magnetic field device had no spesific effect on acute ischemic muscle pain. HR was collected and analyzed with Firstbeat Sports.
Physical fitness and prior physical activity are both associated with less cortisol secretion during psychosocial stress
Wood C, Clow A, Hucklebridge F, Law R & Smyth N 2018 Anxiety, Stress & Coping 31 (2), 135-145 Cross-sectional study; Non-athletes, n=164 Measurement HR The study explored the effect of fitness and acute physical activity on stress responses elicited by a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST-G). During the physical activity (PA) and for fitness evaluation HR was monitored with Firstbeat Bodyguard 2. Fitter individuals had reduced cortisol secretion during psychososial stress and that prior PA reduced cortisol concentrations during psychosocial stress. The results suggest that physical activity may reduce the impact of stress on health.
No effect of a pulsed magnetic field on induced ischemic muscle pain. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial Szemerszkya R, Szabolcs Z, Bogdány T, Jánossy G, Thuróczy G & Köteles F 2018 Physiology & Behavior, 184: 1: 55-59 Experimental study; Healthy subjects, n=70 Measurement HR Firstbeat teambelt was used for HR monitoring in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment where the impact of a commercially available whole-body PEMF mat on acute ischemic muscle pain induced in the forearm was studied.
Heart rate variability changes from traditional vs. ultra–short-term recordings in relation to preseason training load and performance in futsal players
Nakamura FY, Antunes P, Nunes C, Costa JA, Esco MR & Travassos B. 2018 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Experimental study; Male futsal players, n=11 Measurement RR-intervals The study analyzed HRV changes in futsal players during preseason training using both “criterion” (10-minute) and ultra-shortened (2-minute) measures, and determined whether they were related to changes in the Yo-Yo Intermittent RecoveryTest, performance and accumulated training load. Firstbeat Sports was used to collect HRV.
A biomechanical and physiological study of office seat and tablet device interaction
Weston E, Le P, Marras WS 2017 Applied Ergonomics 62 (2017) 83e93 Experimental study; Adults, n = 20 Applied use HRV Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 was used to measure HRV in a study comparing the ergonomic strain caused by different working positions and devices. They found HRV can serve as an objective measure of seating discomfort.
Feasibility of high-intensity interval training with hyperoxia vs. intermittent hyperoxia and hypoxia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy – Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial Schumann M, Schulz H, Hackney AC, Bloch W 2017 Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, 8: 213-217 Experimental study Applied use None The paper describes a study protocol of an exercise intervention RCT study for cancer patients. Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 will be used to collect HRV information.
Daily monitoring of the internal training load by the heart rate variability: A case study
Ornelas F, Nakamura F, Dos-Santos J, Batista D, Meneghel V, Nogueira W, Brigatto F, Germano M, Sindorf M, Moreno M, Lopes C & Braz T 2017 Official research journal of the American society of exercise physiologists 20(1): 151-163 Case study; Adult, n = 1 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to record HRV for assessing internal training load of one amateur road running athlete
Heart rate variability during sitting, standing and treadmill exercise: a case study Cox J, Balcavage W, Panta M, Geib R, Oggero E & Waite G 2017 ISA 2017 A case study; Adult, n=1 Measurement RR-intervals The aim of this study was to examine the stability and repeatability of HRV during several months. Bodyguard 2 was used for data collection 24 times during sitting, standing and progressive treadmill loads.
Evaluating the low back biomechanics of three different office workstations: seated, standing, and perching
Le P & Marras W 2016 Applied ergonomics 56: 170-178 Cohort study; Adults, n = 20 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure physiological discomfort assessed via heart rate to study low back biomechanics of three different office workstations
Cardiac-activity measures for assessing airport ramp-tower controller’s workload
Hayashi M & Dulchinos V 2016 Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 6 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure HRV for assessing workload of airport ramp-tower controllers
Autonomic responses to ultrasound guided percutaneous needle electrolysis of the patellar tendon in healthy male footballers
de la Cruz Torres B, Cabello M, Bermejo P & Orellana J 2016 Acupuncture in medicine 34(4):275-279 Randomized controlled trial; Adults, n = 22 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard device was used to record HRV to study autonomic responses to ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle acupuncture
Developmental origins of infant stress reactivity profiles: A multi-system approach
Rash J, Thomas J, Campbell T, Letourneau N, Granger D & Giesbrecht G 2016 Developmental Psychobiology 58(5): 578-599 Cohort study; Adults (women), n = 254 and their infants Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure HRV in approx. 6 month old infants and their mothers in a study examining the development of stress reactivity profiles of infants
The role of maternal cardiac vagal control in the association between depressive symptoms and gestational hypertension
Rouleau C, Tomfohr-Madsen L, Campbell T, Letourneau N, O’Beirne M, Giesbrecht G & The APrON Study Team 2016 Biological Psychology 117: 32-42 Cohort study; Adults (pregnant women), n = 287 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure HRV in a study examining the role of HRV in the association between depressed mood and gestational hypertension during pregnancy
Connected heart rate sensors to monitor sleep quality: electrodes, chestbelt and smartwatch users acceptability
Simonnet M, Billot R & Gourvennec B 2016 CHASE 2016: IEEE First Conference on Connected health: Applications, systems and engineering technologies Experimental study; Adults, n = 12 Usability RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device acceptability during sleep was tested and compared with 2 other monitors with Firstbeat analytics inside
Towards 24/7 continuous heart rate monitoring
Tarniceriu A, Parak J, Renevey P, Nurmi M, Bertschi M, Delgado-Gonzalo R & Korhonen I 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) Experimental study; Adults, n = 42 Validity RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard was used as an ECG-based reference in a study aiming to develop an algorithmic approach to reduce power consumption of the optical HR monitoring technology in 24/7 HR monitoring
A biomechanical and physiological study of office seat and tablet device interaction
Weston E, Le P & Marras W 2016 Applied Ergonomics 62: 83-93 Experimental study; Adult 20 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to investigate physiological discomfort and the effects of two different chairs, two different devices, and their interaction.
Acute and dealyed response to resistance exercise leading or not leading to muscle failure
Pareja-Blanco F, Rodriguez-Rosell D, Sanchez-Medina L, Ribas-Serna J, Lopez-Lopez C, Mora-Custodio R, Yanez-Garcia JM & Gonzales-Badillo J 2016 Clinical Physiology Functional Imaging (Epub ahead of print) doi: 10.1111/cpf.12348 Experimental study; Adults n = 10 Measurement RR-intervals Firtsbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to study autonomic cardiovascular response to resistance exercise protocols differing in the number of repetitions per set
Heartbeat scaling in early adolescents: Its association with anxiety symptoms and sensitivity to punishment
de la Torre-Luque A, Fiol-Veny A, Balle M & Bornas X 2016 International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 16: 287-294 Case-control study; Adolescents n = 50 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard was used to evaluate if risk of anxiety disorders may be seen in HRV parameters
Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain
Hallman D, Mathiassen SE, Lyskov E 2015 BioMed Research International Case-control study; Adults, n = 56 Applied use HRV Firstbeat Bodyguard device was used for measuring HRV in a study assessing differences in HRV responses to daily physical activity between subjects with and without chronic neck pain
Evaluation of the beat-to-beat detection accuracy of PulseOn wearable optical heart rate monitor
Parak J, Tarniceriu A, Renevey P, Bertschi M, Delgado-Gonzalo R & Korhonen I 2015 Study by PulseOn Experimental study; Adults, n = 10 Validity RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used as an ECG-based reference device against optical beat-by-beat measurement
Two new indexes for the assessment of autonomic balance in elite soccer players
Orellana J, de la Cruz Torres B, Cachadña ES, de Hoyo M & Cobo SD 2015 International Journal of Sports Physiology Perform 10(4): 452-457 Experimental study; Adults, n = 25 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard device was used for measuring HRV in a study assessing autonomic nervous system balance in elite soccer players
Changes in physical activity and heart rate variability in chronic neck-shoulder pain: monitoring during work and leisure time
Hallman D, Ekman A & Lyskov E 2014 International archives of occupational and environmental health 87(7): 735-744 Case-control study; Adults, n = 56 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard device was used to measure HRV during sleep to astudy autonomic responses of workers with chronic neck-shoulder pain vs. matched workers without pain
Cognitive, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of mind wandering and perseverative cognition in major depression
Ottaviani C, Shahabi L, Tarvainen M, Cook I, Abrams M & Shapiro D 2014 Frontiers in Neuroscience 8: 433 Case-control study; Adults, n = 36 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure HRV in a study aiming to examine the autonomic concomitants of functional vs. dysfunctional intrusive thoughts in Major Depressive Disorder
Heart rate variability and phantom pain in male amputees: Application of linear and nonlinear methods
Cachadiña ES, Garcia PG, Da Luz T, Esteban RG, Perez OB, Orellana N & de la Rosa B 2013 Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 50(3): 449-454 Cross-sectional study; Adults n = 35 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard and Firstbeat analysis method was used to analyze HRV in a study investigating autonomic nervous system function in adult males with amputation
Cognitive Performance and Heart Rate Variability: The Influence of Fitness Level
Luque-Casado A, Zabala M, Morales E, Mateo-March M & Sanabria D 2013 PlosOne 8(2): e56935 Cross-sectional study; Young males n = 26 Measurement RR-intervals Firstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to record HRV during the experimental sessions in a study investigating the relation between cognitive performance and heart rate variability as a function of fitness level
Cognitive Performance and Heart Rate Variability: The Influence of Fitness Level
Luque-Casado A , Zabala M, Morales E, Mateo-March M & Sanabria D 2013 PLoS One. 8(2): e56935. Cross-sectional study; Males, n=28 Applied use HRV The study investigated the relation between cognitive performance and HRV as a function of fitness level. Two groups of participants, a high-fit group and a low-fit group were performing three cognitive tasks (a psychomotor vigilance task, a temporal orienting task, and a duration discrimination task). Firstbeat Bodyguard and Firstbeat athlete were used for HRV analysis.