White Papers and Publications

Detailed descriptions of technology background and scientific publications provide professional level knowledge and understanding.

White papers describe in detail the scientific background of Firstbeat’s technologies with different application areas. The publications section presents studies where Firstbeat solutions have been exploited.  The different scientific contexts include for example occupational health care, sleep research, psychotherapy, behavioral research, and sports coaching. Firstbeat methods have been used for research in about 80 universities and research institutions across Europe, North-America, and Australia.

 

 

Scientific publications related to

Stress, recovery, sleep, and wellbeing

TitleAuthorYearJournal/ProceedingsStudy design & PopulationCategoryPhysiological parameter(s)Insights on findings
Social rhythms of the heart
Pantzar M, Ruckenstein M & Mustonen V2017Health sociology review 26(1): 22-37Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 35Applied useStress and recoveryFirstbeat was used to describe and visualize social rhythms of stress and recovery in the everyday life.
Recovery of rescuers from a 24-h shift and its association with aerobic fitness
Lyytikäinen K, Toivonen L, Hynynen E, Lindholm H & Kyröläinen H2017International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health 30(3): 433-444Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 14Applied useStress and recoveryFirstbeat was used to study changes in autonomic control during a 24-hour work shift and its recovery period among rescuers. Also relation of aerobic fitness on recovery was studied.
Physiological load and psychological stress during a 24-hour work shift among Finnish firefighters
Kaikkonen P, Lindholm H & Lusa S2017Journal of occupational and environmental medicine 59(1): 41-46Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 25Applied useStress and recovery; VO2; Energy expenditureFirstbeat method was used to describe physiological load and psychological stress of firefighters during a 24-hour work shift
Short-term physiological strain and recovery among employees working with agile and lean methods in software and embedded ICT systems
Tuomivaara S, Lindholm H & Känsälä M2017International journal of human-computer interactionCross-sectional study; Adults, n = 36Applied useStress and recoveryFirstbeat method and Bodyguard device were used to assess short-term physiological stress and recovery associated with agile and lean work working methods. Results showed that agile work could even out workload during a working period.
Physical activity, heart rate variability-based stress and recovery, and subjective stress during a 9-month study period
Föhr T, Tolvanen A, Myllymäki T, Järvelä-Reijonen E, Peuhkuri K, Rantala S, Kolehmainen M, Korpela R, Lappalainen R, Ermes M, Puttonen S, Rusko H & Kujala UM2017Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 27: 612-621Intervention study; Adults, n = 221Applied useStress and recoveryFirstbeat method was used to objectively measure stress and recovery to study association between physical activity and objective stress and recovery with subjective stress
Effects of using standing versus sitting workstations on the well-being at work of software professionals
Makkonen M, Silvennoinen M, Nousiainen T, Pesola A & Vesisenaho M2016Versendaal et al. (eds), BLED 2016: Proceedings of the 29thBled eConference “Digital economy”: 419-433Intervention study; Adults, n = 29Applied usePhysical activity; Stress and recoveryFirtsbeat method was used to examine potential effects of using standing versus sitting workstations on the well-being at work
Eustress - findings concerning the indication and interpretation of positive stress among entrepreneurs - a case study
Oksman V, Ermes M & Tikkamäki K2016The business and management review 7 (3): 342-347Case study; Adults, n = 9Applied useStress and recoveryFirstbeat method was used to get information of entrepereneurs' physiological reactions. Afterwards positive and negative stress reactions were discriminated based on subjective feelings.
An After-School, high-intensity, interval physical activity programme improves health-related fitness in children
Martinez S, Rios L, Tamayo I, Almeida L, Lopez-Gomez M & Jara C2016Motriz, Rio Claro 22 (4): 359-367Intervention study; Children, n = 94Applied useEPOC; Physical activityFirstbeat method was used to assess workload of children aged 7-9 years participating in programmed physical activity in intervention group vs. control group setting
Physical activity, body mass index and heart rate variability-based stress and recovery in 16 275 Finnish employees: a cross-sectional study
Föhr T, Pietilä J, Helander E, Myllymäki T, Lindholm H, Rusko H & Kujala UM2016BMC Public Health 16:701Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 16 275Firstbeat databaseStress and recoveryFirstbeat database was used to explore associations between PA level and BMI, and Firstbeat stress and recovery. High PA level was associated with better stress recovery balance whereas higher BMI were associated with poorer results. The study emphazises benefical effects of PA for stress balance.
Soft proposody and embodied attunement in therapeutic interaction: A multimethod case study of a moment of changeKykyri V-L, Karvonen A, Wahlström J, Kaartinen J, Penttonen M & Seikkula J2016Journal of Constructivist Psychology 30(3): 211-234Case study; Adults, n = 3Applied useStress and recoveryFirstbeat method was used to assess stress level of therapist and client in psychotherapy
Sympathetic nervous system synchrony in couple therapy
Karvonen A, Kykyri V-L, Kaartinen J, Penttonen M & Seikkula J2016Journal of Maritla and Family Therapy 42(3): 383-395Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 30Applied useStress and recoveryFirstbeat method was used to assess stress level of therapists and clients in psychotherapy
Subjective stress, objective heart rate variability stress, and recovery on workdays among overweight and psychologically distressed individuals: a cross-sectional study
Föhr T, Tolvanen A, Myllymäki T, Järvelä-Reijonen E, Rantala S, Korpela R, Peuhkuri K, Kolehmainen M, Puttonen S, Lappalainen R, Rusko H & Kujala U2015Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 10(30)Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 221ValidityStress and recoverySubjective stress was directly associated with objective stress and inversely with objective recovery measured with the Firstbeat method. The authors suggested that objective stress assessment provides an additional aspect to stress evaluation.
Predictors of increase in physical activity during a 6-month follow-up period among overweight and physically inactive healthy young adults
Mutikainen A, Föhr T, Karhunen L, Kolehmainen M, Kainulainen H, Lappalainen R & Kujala U2015Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness 13(2): 63-71Cohort study; Adults, n = 51Applied use; InterventionStress and recoveryThe study examined how psychological and physiological variables at baseline predicted increase of PA level during a 6-month intervention period in overweight and physically inactive young adults who participated in lifestyle counselling without supervised PA sessions.
Exploratory analysis of associations between individual lifestyles and heart rate variability -based recovery during sleepPietilä J, Helander E, Myllymäki T, Korhonen I, Jimison H & Misha P2015EMBC'15. 37th Annual International Conference ot the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (peer reviewed)Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 6288Firstbeat databaseStress and recovery; SleepThe study explored the importance of different lifestyle factors on Firstbeat’s HRV-based recovery during sleep on a large sample. Alcohol consumption, physical activity, fitness, and sleep duration play significant role in recovery.
The embodied attunement of therapists and a couple within dialogical psychotherapy: An introduction to the realtional mind research projectSeikkula J, Karvonen A, Kykyri V-L, Kaartinen J & Penttonen M2015Family Process 54: 703-715Case study; Adults, n = 4Applied useStress and recoveryFirstbeat method was used to assess stress level of therapists and clients in psychotherapy
Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain
Hallman D, Mathiassen SE, Lyskov E2015BioMed Research InternationalCase-control study; Adults, n = 56Applied useHRVFirstbeat Bodyguard device was used for measuring HRV in a study assessing differences in HRV responses to daily physical activity between subjects with and without chronic neck pain
Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional studyTeisala T, Mutikainen S, Tolvanen A, Rottensteiner M, Leskinen T, Kaprio J, Kolehmainen M, Rusko H & Kujala UM2014Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 9:16Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 81Applied use; UsabilityStress and recoveryPhysical activity, fitness level and body composition were associated with Firstbeat stress and recovery, and stress was associated with self-reported occupational burnout symptoms. The authors concluded that the results support the usability of the Firstbeat method in the evaluation of stress and recovery
The effectiveness and applicability of different lifestyle interventions for enhancing wellbeing: the study design for a randomized controlled trial for persons with metabolic syndrome risk factors and psychological stressLappalainen R, Sairanen E, Järvelä E, Rantala S, Korpela R, Puttonen S, Kujala UM, Myllymäki T, Peuhkuri K, Mattila E, Kaipainen K, Ahtinen A, Karhunen L, Pihlajamäki J, Järnefelt H, Laitinen J, Kutinlahti E, Saarelma O, Ermes M & Kolehmainen M2014BMC Public Health 14:310Randomized controlled trial Adults, n = 339Applied use; UsabilityStress and recoveryFirstbeat Lifestyle Assessment was used as an objective method for measuring stress and recovery in RCT examining the effectiveness, applicability, and acceptability of different lifestyle interventions with individuals having symptoms of metabolic syndrome and psychological distress
Feasibility of a personal health technology-based psychological intervention for men with stress and mood problems: randomized controlled pilot trialLappalainen P, Kaipainen K, Lappalainen R, Hoffrén H, Myllymäki T, Kinnunen M-L, Mattila E, Happonen A, Rusko H & Korhonen I2013JMIR Res Protoc 2(1):e1Cohort study; Adults n = 23Applied use; UsabilityStress and recoveryFirstbeat lifestyle assessment was used in a well-being intervention utilizing several technology tools and rated as the most useful intervention component by the participants
Effects of daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components on chronic stress responses: a double-blinded randomized cotrolled trialJaatinen N, Korpela R, Poussa T, Turpeinen A, Mustonen S, Merilahti J & Peuhkuri K2014International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 65(4):507-514Randomized Controlled Trial; Adults, n = 72Applied useStress and recoveryThe study used Firstbeat method as objective physiological method to assess stress when investigating whether yoghurt enriched with bioactive components have stress reducing effects as compared to normal yoghurt
Heart rate variability measurements in mobile work
Hyrkkänen U & Vartiainen M2012Communications in Computer and Information Science 313:60-67. 4th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society. Eriksson-Backa K, Luoma A, Krook E (Eds.)Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 10Applied use; UsabilityStress and recoveryHRV-based Firstbeat assessment was found to be especially suitable for mobile employees with mobile working mode who have difficulties on controlling their work–life balance
Effects of exercise intensity and duration on nocturnal heart rate variability and sleep qualityMyllymäki T, Rusko H, Syväoja H, Juuti T, Kinnunen M-L & Kyröläinen H2012European Journal of Applied Physiology 112(3): 801-809Experimental study; Adults, n = 14Applied useStress and recovery; SleepFirstbeat relaxation was decreased during sleep after demanding exercises [vigorous or long] compared to control sleep without changes in actigraphy or subjective sleep quality
Heart rate variability related to effort at workUusitalo A, Mets T, Martinmäki K, Mauno S, Kinnunen U & Rusko H2011Applied Ergonomics 42(6): 830-838Cross-sectional study; Adults, n = 19ValidityStress and recoveryFirstbeat relaxation was negatively associated with effort at work measured with effort-reward imbalance questionnaire [ERI] assessing chronic work stress
Web, mobile and monitoring technologies in self-management of psychophysiological wellbeing: usage and user experiencesKaipainen K, Mattila E, Väätänen A & Lappalainen R2010Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference eHealth, Freiburg, Germany, 167-177Randomized Controlled Trial; Adults, n = 24Applied use; UsabilityStress and recovery; SleepThe study explored a concept in which large amount of different technologies were utilized for improving well-being of participants, and where face-to-face intervention meetings and Firstbeat measurements with personal feedback were perceived as the two most important components of the whole concept
Effects of vigorous late-night exercise on sleep quality and cardiac autonomic activityMyllymäki T, Kyröläinen H, Savolainen K, Hokka L, Jakonen R, Juuti T, Martinmäki K, Kaartinen J, Kinnunen M-L & Rusko H2010Journal of Sleep Research 20: 146-153Experimental study; Adults, n = 11Applied useStress and recovery; SleepFirstbeat relaxation was diminished during sleep after intensive late-evening exercise without changes in polysomnographic or movement-based sleep quality
P4Well concept to empower self-management of psychophysiological wellbeing and load recovery
Happonen A, Mattila E, Kinnunen M-L, Ikonen V, Myllymäki T, Kaipainen K, Rusko H, Lappalainen R & Korhonen I2009Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Pervasive Conputing Technologies for Healthcare, London, UK, 1-3Intervention study; Adults, n = 34Applied use; UsabilityStress and recovery; SleepThe study described a well-being concept that utilized also Firstbeat methods [mobile coach and lifestyle assessment] and which was designed with a driving principle that an individual is the best master of his/her own wellness and targeted to empower his/her for realizing the fact
The association between self-rated affective well-being and physiological indicators of stress and relaxation among cleaning staffFeldt T, Rönkä T, Rusko H, Kinnunen M-L & Kinnunen U2007European Congress of Work and Organizational PsychologyCross-sectional study; Adults, n = 38Applied useStress and recoveryContentment at work indicating subjective experiences of relaxation was linked to low physiological stress and high physiological relaxation measured with Firstbeat method
The associations between physiological recovery indicators during sleep and self-reported work stressorsRönkä T, Rusko H, Feldt T, Kinnunen U, Mauno S, Uusitalo A & Martinmäki K2006Nordic Ergonomics Society CongressCross-sectional study; Adults, n = 17ValidityStress and recovery; SleepFirstbeat method was used to investigate relaxation time during sleep. Longer relaxation time was associated with less perceived work stressors on the next day.
Stress and relaxation based on heart rate variability: Associations with self-reported mental strain and differences between waking hours and sleepKinnunen M-L, Rusko H, Feldt T, Kinnunen U, Juuti T, Myllymäki T, Laine K, Hakkarainen P & Louhevaara V2006Nordic Ergonomics Society Congress, abstractCross-sectional study; Adults, n = 27ValidityStress and recoveryFirstbeat method is a promising tool for occupational health care sector as it provides general scoring describing stress and relaxation state for work, leisure time, and sleep
Stress and relaxation during sleep and awake time, and their associations with free salivary cortisol after awakeningRusko H, Rönkä T, Uusitalo A, Kinnunen U, Mauno S, Feldt T, Kinnunen M-L, Martinmäki K, Hirvonen A, Hyttinen S & Lindholm H2006Nordic Ergonomics Society Congress, abstractCross-sectional study; Adults, n = 17ValidityStress and recovery; SleepSignificant correlations were found between awakening cortisol variables and variables of stress and relaxation with Firstbeat method during sleep
Associations of psychological self-assessments and heart rate variability in long term measurements at homeAntila K, van Gils M, Merilahti J & Korhonen I2005European Medical & Biological Engineering ConferenceExperimental study; Adults, n = 12ValidityStress and recoveryThe study revealed significant associations between stress measured with Firstbeat method and self-assessments of stress

Scientific publications related to

Oxygen consumption and
maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)

TitleAuthorYearJournal/ProceedingsStudy design & PopulationCategoryPhysiological parameter(s)Insights on findings
Physical activity: Absolute intensity vs. relative-to-fitness level volumes.
Kujala UM, Pietilä J, Myllymäki T, Mutikainen S, Föhr T, Korhonen I & Helander E2017Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 49(3): 474-481Cross-sectional study; Adult, n = 23224Firstbeat databaseVO2Large sample of Firstbeat measurements were used to investigate how moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity volumes differ according to absolute intensity recommendation and relative to individual fitness level by sex, age, and body mass index
Validation of an indirect VO2max test designed for cycling performances.Teikara A-M2016Master's Thesis in Exercise Physiology. Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä. (Abstract in English)Experimental-study; Adult, n = 29ValidityVO2maxThe study investigated the validity of the Firstbeat VO2max estimation in cycling, and found significant positive correlation with direct VO2max measurement (r=0.84 - 0.86) and MAPE of 7.7 - 8.7%. The study concluded that Firstbeat Fitness Test to be suitable method for VO2max estimation.
Objectively measured physical activity in Finnish employees: a cross-sectional study.
Mutikainen S, Helander E, Pietilä J, Korhonen I & Kujala U2014BMJ Open, Sports and Exercise Medicine 4:12Cross-sectional study; Adult, n = 9554Firstbeat databaseVO2Firstbeat method used as a novel validated methodology to study intensity-specific physical activity in a large sample of working age individuals, with detailed associations between intensity-specific physical activity, gender, age, body mass index, and the type of day (workday vs day off)
Estimating oxygen consumption from heart rate and heart rate variability without individual calibration.
Smolander J, Ajoviita M, Juuti T, Nummela A & Rusko H2011Clinical physiology and functional imaging 31(4): 266-271Cross-sectional study; Adult, n = 19ValidityVO2Firstbeat VO2 estimation method is sufficiently accurate for field-use
Validation of Heart Rate Monitor-Based Predictions of Oxygen Uptake and Energy Expenditure.
Montgomery P, Green D, Etxebarria N, Pyne D, Saunders P & Minahan C2009Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 23(5): 1489-1495Cross-sectional study; Adult, n = 17ValidityVO2; Energy expenditureFirstbeat VO2 estimation method vary ~ 6% in submaximal–maximal running compared to calibrated laboratory gas exchange system, and less if accurate background parameters are used
A new heart rate variability-based method for the estimation of oxygen consumption without individual laboratory calibration: Application example on postal workers.
Smolander J, Juuti T, Kinnunen M-L, Laine, K, Louhevaara V, Männikkö K & Rusko H2007Applied Ergonomics 39(3): 325-331Cross-sectional study; Adult, n = 22Validity; Applied useVO2; Energy expenditureFirstbeat method was compared to traditional HR-only method to estimate energy expenditure, and found useful for estimating VO2 in the field without laboratory calibration
A Novel Method for Using Heart Rate Variability Data for Estimation of Oxygen Consumption and Energy Expenditure: A Validation.
Smolander J, Rusko H, Ajoviita M, Juuti T & Nummela A2007ECSS congressCross-sectional study; Adult, n = 20ValidityVO2; Energy expenditureFirstbeat method provides adequate estimates of breathing frequency and on/off-kinetics of HR and VO2, and consequently the oxygen consumption and energy expenditure
On- and Off Dynamics and Respiration Rate Enhance the Accuracy of Heart Rate Based VO2 Estimation. ACSM congress poster.
Pulkkinen A, Kettunen J, Martinmäki K, Saalasti S & Rusko H2004ACSM congressCross-sectional study; Adult, n = 32ValidityVO2; Respiration rateHR-based VO2 estimation can be enhanced using information on On- and Off-dynamics and respiration rate that can be derived reliably using beat-to-beat RR-interval data only

 

Scientific publications related to

Energy expenditure

TitleAuthorYearJournal/ProceedingsStudy design & PopulationCategoryPhysiological parameter(s)Insights on findings
Validating the use of heart rate variability for estimating energy expenditurete variability for estimating energy expenditureRobertson AH, King K, Ritchie SD, Gauthier AP, Laurence M & Dorman SC2015International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences 3(2): 19-26Cohort study; Adult, n = 30ValidityEnergy expenditure; VO2maxEnergy expenditure provided by Firstbeat method was validated against indirect calorimetry. The authors concluded that EE estimates provided by Firstbeat are sufficiently accurate to indicate that the method possesses practical utility and may be used for individual EE monitoring.
Novel tools in determining the physiological demands and nutritional practises of Ontario FireRangers during fire deploymentsRobertson AH, Larivière C, Leduc CR, McGillis Z, Eger T, Godwin A, Larivière M & Dorman SC2017PlosOne 12(1):e0169390Cross-sectional study; Adult, n = 21Applied useEnergy expenditure; Stress and recoveryFirstbeat method was used to assess deployment specific energy demands and physiological responses of firemen. Results support the use of a modern technology for the comprehensive evaluation of physiological variables and
food consumption in free-living occupational settings.
Exercise for fitness does not decrease the muscular inactivity time during normal daily lifeFinni T, Haakana P, Pesola AJ & Pullinen T2014Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport 24: 211-219Cross-sectional study; Adult, n = 27Applied useEnergy expenditureEnergy expenditure provided by Firstbeat method was used as a reference for daily energy expenditure and compared to muscle activity data [EMG] during active and non-active days
Heart rate variability recordings are a valid non-invasive tool for evaluating soldiers' stressSalonen M, Kokko J, Tyysk J & Koivu M2013Journal of Defence Studies and Resource ManagementCross-sectional studyApplied use; UsabilityEnergy expenditureFirstbeat methods were utilized in assessing soldiers’ energy expenditure and cardiovascular autonomic modulation during 72-hour military field training and shown applicable method for assessing soldiers’ stress
Validation of heart rate monitor-based predictions of oxygen uptake and energy expenditureMontgomery P, Green D, Etxebarria N, Pyne D, Saunders P & Minahan C2009Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 23(5): 1489-1495Cross-sectional study; Adult, n = 17ValidityEnergy expenditure; VO2Firstbeat VO2 estimation method vary ~ 6% in submaximal–maximal running compared to calibrated laboratory gas exchange system, and less if accurate background parameters are used
A novel method for using heart rate variability data for estimation of oxygen consumption and energy expenditure: A validationSmolander J, Rusko H, Ajoviita M, Juuti T & Nummela A2007ECSS congressCross-sectional study; Adult, n = 20ValidityEnergy expenditure; VO2Firstbeat method provides adequate estimates of breathing frequency and on/off-kinetics of HR and VO2, and consequently the oxygen consumption and energy expenditure
Energy expenditure can be accurately estimated from HR without individual laboratory calibrationPulkkinen A, Saalasti S & Rusko H2005ACSM congressCross-sectional study: Adult, n = 32ValidityEnergy expenditureFirstbeat method provided an accurate and practical method for estimating energy expenditure without individual laboratory calibration making it especially suitable for field use

 

Scientific publications related to

Exercise, training and sports coaching

TitleAuthorYearJournal/ProceedingsStudy design & PopulationCategoryPhysiological parameter(s)Insights on findings
Nocturnal heart rate and heart rate variability based training load monitoring, a case study of an elite junior XC Skier during a Glacier Training CampMikkola J, Hynynen E & Nummela A20122nd international Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing, 28-31 May, Vuokatti, FinlandCase study; Junior athlete, n = 1Applied useStress and recovery; HRVFirstbeat method seems to be practical tool for assessing training induced stress over an athlete although recovery as well as HR and HRV responses are individual
Heart rate variability in prediction of individual adaptation to endurance training in recreational endurance runnersVesterinen V, Häkkinen K, Hynynen E, Mikkola J, Hokka L & Nummela A2010Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 23(2): 171-180Longitudinal intervention study; Athletes, n = 28Applied useHRVFirstbeat method was used to analyze nocturnal HRV which may serve as a useful method to assess individual adaptation to prolonged endurance training
A three year follow-up study of endurance performance and nocturnal HRV of an international level race-walkerHynynen E & Nummela A2010EA innovation awardsCase study; Athletes, n = 1Applied useStress and recoveryRegular nocturnal HRV analysis with Firstbeat method was utilized for international level race-walker’s training and it was found useful for assessing training and racing induced stress and an individual variation in recovery
Physical loading, stress and recovery in a youth soccer tournamentLuhtanen P, Nummela A & Lipponen K2007VIth congress on science in footballCohort study; Junior athletes, n = 10Applied useEPOC; Stress and recoveryFirstbeat method was applied for soccer in assessing load of matches and training [by EPOC] and recovery during sleep [recovery index]
Heart rate and match analysis of Finnish junior football playersVänttinen T, Blomqvist M, Lehto H & Häkkinen K2007VIth congress on science in footballCross-sectional study; Junior athletes, n = 43Applied useEPOC; VO2; Energy expenditureMatch analysis and physiological analysis [HR and EPOC by Firstbeat method] was conducted for junior soccer players in different age groups revealing higher relative playing intensity in older age groups during a match
An evaluation of physical loading, recovery and stress in youth soccerHäyrinen M, Luhtanen P, Juntunen J, Hynynen E, Vänttinen T, Lipponen K & Heliskoski J2007Science for success II congressCross-sectional study; Junior athletes, n = 18Applied useEPOC; Stress and recoveryThe study showed that Firstbeat methods work well in team sports and the results revealed that the playing position and characteristics of the match affect significantly to EPOC values, which typically peaked during the first half of the match
Practical experiences from measuring exercise intensity and recovery state with heart rate monitoring in team sportVänttinen t, Nummela A & Rupf R2007International Symposium Computer Science in SportCohort study; Athletes, n = 24Applied useEPOC; Stress and recoveryFirstbeat methods were applied into team sports [soccer] and found applicable for following-up of training, quantifying the impact of matches, optimizing preparation, and for teaching players to recognize their overall stress in life
A reliable and accurate measuring instrument for performance diagnostics and training controlWünch A, Schurack O & Schmidt W2006University of Bayreuth, reportCross-sectional study; Adult, n = 17ValidityVO2; Ventilation, Respiration rate, EPOCFirstbeat method utilized in Suunto t6 wrist computer is appropriate for performance diagnostics and training control, and might highly contribute to successful training
Suunto t6 - ein zuverlässiges und genaues Messgerät zur Leistungsdiagnostik und Trainingssteuerung? Untersuchung zur Validität und Realibilität anhand von Labortests auf dem Fahrradergometer und FeldtestsWünch A & Schurack O2006University of Bayreuth, reportCross-sectional study; Adult, n = 17ValidityVO2; Ventilation, Respiration rate, EPOCFirstbeat method utilized in Suunto t6 wrist computer was shown to be valid and reliable in laboratory and field tests for measuring physiological parameters
Examination of Suunto t6 regarding Validity and ReliabilityWünch A, Schurack O & Romann M2005University of Bayreuth, reportCross-sectional study; Adult, n = 17ValidityVO2; Ventilation, Respiration rate, EPOCFirstbeat method utilized in Suunto t6 wrist computer provides reliable values during a maximum stress test until exhaustion for ventilation, respiration rate, oxygen consumption and energy expenditure
Influence of increased duration or intensity on training load as evaluated by EPOC and TRIMPSRusko H2004ACSM congressCross-sectional study; Adult, n = 8ValidityEPOCEPOC can give dynamic information on the training load and allows calculation of time needed for recovery i.e. decrease of EPOC to resting level
Pre-prediction of EPOC: A tool for monitoring fatigue accumulation during exercise?Rusko H, Pulkkinen A, Saalasti S, Hynynen E & Kettunen J2003ACSM congressMeta-analysis of 48 peer-reviewed articles; Adult, n = 32 in validation datasetValidityEPOCEPOC can be pre-predicted by using only heartbeat data during exercise
High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants
Nummela A, Hynynen E, Kaikkonen P & Rusko H2016Biology of sport 33(1): 7-13Intervention study; Adults, n = 15IApplied useHRVFirstbeat method was used during night sleep to investigate the potential of HRV indices for evaluating the training load and training response of sedentary participants in high-intensity endurance training. Nocturnal HFP was found to be a useful method to monitor individual responses to endurance training.
Predicting and monitoring individual endurance training adaptation and individualizing training prescription: With endurance performance, cardiac autonomic regulation and neuromuscular performance
Vesterinen V2016Academic Dissertation. Studies in sport, physical education and health 248, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandLongitudinal, experimental studies; Recretional athletes, n = 68Academic dissertationHRVFirstbeat method was used to study usability of cardiac autonomic regulation in predicting and monitoring training adaptations, and individualizing training prescription. Findings suggest that resting HRV shows great potential as a practical tool for monitoring adaptations and individualizing training.
Effects of HRV-Guided vs. Predetermined Block Training on Performance, HRV and Serum Hormones
Nuuttila O-P, Nikander A, Polomoshnov D, Laukkanen JA & Häkkinen K2017International Journal of Sports MedicineIntervention study; Adults, n = 24Applied use; validityStress and recovery; HRVFirstbeat HRV-based Quick Recovery Test was used to guide endurance block training, and it was compared to predetermined training. The study found that individually HRV-guided training may provide greater endurance and neuromuscular adaptations and reduce the risk of overtraining.

 

Scientific publications utilizing

Firstbeat Bodyguard (2) device for tracking HRV

TitleAuthorYearJournal/ProceedingsStudy design & PopulationCategoryPhysiological parameter(s)Insights on findings
Daily monitoring of the internal training load by the heart rate variability: A case study
Ornelas F, Nakamura F, Dos-Santos J, Batista D, Meneghel V, Nogueira W, Brigatto F, Germano M, Sindorf M, Moreno M, Lopes C & Braz T2017Official research journal of the American society of exercise physiologists 20(1): 151-163Case study; Adult, n = 1MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to record HRV for assessing internal training load of one amateur road running athlete
Cardiac-activity measures for assessing airport ramp-tower controller's workload
Hayashi M & Dulchinos V2016Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual MeetingCross-sectional study; Adults, n = 6MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure HRV for assessing workload of airport ramp-tower controllers
Evaluating the low back biomechanics of three different office workstations: seated, standing, and perching
Le P & Marras W2016Applied ergonomics 56: 170-178Cohort study; Adults, n = 20MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure physiological discomfort assessed via heart rate to study low back biomechanics of three different office workstations
Autonomic responses to ultrasound guided percutaneous needle electrolysis of the patellar tendon in healthy male footballers
de la Cruz Torres B, Cabello M, Bermejo P & Orellana J2016Acupuncture in medicine 34(4):275-279Randomized controlled trial; Adults, n = 22MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard device was used to record HRV to study autonomic responses to ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle acupuncture
Developmental origins of infant stress reactivity profiles: A multi-system approach
Rash J, Thomas J, Campbell T, Letourneau N, Granger D & Giesbrecht G2016Developmental Psychobiology 58(5): 578-599Cohort study; Adults (women), n = 254 and their infantsMeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure HRV in approx. 6 month old infants and their mothers in a study examining the development of stress reactivity profiles of infants
Connected heart rate sensors to monitor sleep quality: electrodes, chestbelt and smartwatch users acceptability
Simonnet M, Billot R & Gourvennec B2016CHASE 2016: IEEE First Conference on Connected health: Applications, systems and engineering technologiesExperimental study; Adults, n = 12UsabilityRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device acceptability during sleep was tested and compared with 2 other monitors with Firstbeat analytics inside
The role of maternal cardiac vagal control in the association between depressive symptoms and gestational hypertension
Rouleau C, Tomfohr-Madsen L, Campbell T, Letourneau N, O'Beirne M, Giesbrecht G & The APrON Study Team2016Biological Psychology 117: 32-42Cohort study; Adults (pregnant women), n = 287MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure HRV in a study examining the role of HRV in the association between depressed mood and gestational hypertension during pregnancy
A biomechanical and physiological study of office seat and tablet device interaction
Weston E, Le P & Marras W2016Applied Ergonomics 62: 83-93Experimental study; Adult 20MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to investigate physiological discomfort and the effects of two different chairs, two different devices, and their interaction.
Towards 24/7 continuous heart rate monitoring
Tarniceriu A, Parak J, Renevey P, Nurmi M, Bertschi M, Delgado-Gonzalo R & Korhonen I201638th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)Experimental study; Adults, n = 42ValidityRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard was used as an ECG-based reference in a study aiming to develop an algorithmic approach to reduce power consumption of the optical HR monitoring technology in 24/7 HR monitoring
Acute and dealyed response to resistance exercise leading or not leading to muscle failure
Pareja-Blanco F, Rodriguez-Rosell D, Sanchez-Medina L, Ribas-Serna J, Lopez-Lopez C, Mora-Custodio R, Yanez-Garcia JM & Gonzales-Badillo J2016Clinical Physiology Functional Imaging (Epub ahead of print) doi: 10.1111/cpf.12348Experimental study; Adults n = 10MeasurementRR-intervalsFirtsbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to study autonomic cardiovascular response to resistance exercise protocols differing in the number of repetitions per set
Heartbeat scaling in early adolescents: Its association with anxiety symptoms and sensitivity to punishment
de la Torre-Luque A, Fiol-Veny A, Balle M & Bornas X2016International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 16: 287-294Case-control study; Adolescents n = 50MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard was used to evaluate if risk of anxiety disorders may be seen in HRV parameters
Evaluation of the beat-to-beat detection accuracy of PulseOn wearable optical heart rate monitor
Parak J, Tarniceriu A, Renevey P, Bertschi M, Delgado-Gonzalo R & Korhonen I2015Study by PulseOnExperimental study; Adults, n = 10ValidityRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used as an ECG-based reference device against optical beat-by-beat measurement
Two new indexes for the assessment of autonomic balance in elite soccer players
Orellana J, de la Cruz Torres B, Cachadña ES, de Hoyo M & Cobo SD2015International Journal of Sports Physiology Perform 10(4): 452-457Experimental study; Adults, n = 25MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard device was used for measuring HRV in a study assessing autonomic nervous system balance in elite soccer players
Changes in physical activity and heart rate variability in chronic neck-shoulder pain: monitoring during work and leisure time
Hallman D, Ekman A & Lyskov E2014International archives of occupational and environmental health 87(7): 735-744Case-control study; Adults, n = 56MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard device was used to measure HRV during sleep to astudy autonomic responses of workers with chronic neck-shoulder pain vs. matched workers without pain
Cognitive, behavioral, and autonomic correlates of mind wandering and perseverative cognition in major depression
Ottaviani C, Shahabi L, Tarvainen M, Cook I, Abrams M & Shapiro D2014Frontiers in Neuroscience 8: 433Case-control study; Adults, n = 36MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to measure HRV in a study aiming to examine the autonomic concomitants of functional vs. dysfunctional intrusive thoughts in Major Depressive Disorder
Cognitive Performance and Heart Rate Variability: The Influence of Fitness Level
Luque-Casado A, Zabala M, Morales E, Mateo-March M & Sanabria D2013PlosOne 8(2): e56935Cross-sectional study; Young males n = 26MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard 2 device was used to record HRV during the experimental sessions in a study investigating the relation between cognitive performance and heart rate variability as a function of fitness level
Heart rate variability and phantom pain in male amputees: Application of linear and nonlinear methods
Cachadiña ES, Garcia PG, Da Luz T, Esteban RG, Perez OB, Orellana N & de la Rosa B2013Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 50(3): 449-454Cross-sectional study; Adults n = 35MeasurementRR-intervalsFirstbeat Bodyguard and Firstbeat analysis method was used to analyze HRV in a study investigating autonomic nervous system function in adult males with amputation

 

Scientific publications related to

Physiological modeling, signal processing and mathematical modeling

TitleAuthorYearJournal/ProceedingsStudy design & PopulationCategoryPhysiological parameter(s)Insights on findings
Energy expenditure can be accurately estimated from HR without individual laboratory calibration.
Pulkkinen A, Saalasti S & Rusko H2005ACSM congressCross-sectional study: Adult, n = 32ValidityVO2; Energy expenditureFirstbeat method provided an accurate and practical method for estimating energy expenditure without individual laboratory calibration making it especially suitable for field use
Artefact correction for heart beat and interval dataSaalasti S, Seppänen M & Kuusela A2004ProBisi Meeting, Jyväskylä 1.10.2004Mathematical; uses R-R interval dataValidityHRVThe RR-interval artefact correction method by Firstbeat was proven to be fast, very accurate and reliable as it was able to find the correct HR level even in situations where half of the data were artefacts.
On- and Off Dynamics and Respiration Rate Enhance the Accuracy of Heart Rate Based VO2 Estimation
Pulkkinen A, Kettunen J, Martinmäki K, Saalasti S & Rusko H2004ACSM congressCross-sectional study; Adult, n = 32ValidityVO2HR-based VO2 estimation can be enhanced using information on On- and Off-dynamics and respiration rate that can be derived reliably using beat-to-beat RR-interval data only
Neural networks for heart rate time series analysis
Saalasti S2003Academic Dissertation. Department of Mathematical Information Technology, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandMathematical: uses R-R interval dataAcademic DissertationHRV, EPOC, Respiration rateThe study introduced methodology utilizing neural network modeling for interpreting heart rate data, and provided several innovations combining human physiology and mathematical modeling
Rusko et al. (2003). Pre-Prediction of EPOC: A Tool for Monitoring Fatigue Accumulation during Exercise?
Rusko H, Pulkkinen A, Saalasti S, Hynynen E & Kettunen J2003ACSM congressMeta-analysis of 48 peer-reviewed articles; Adult, n = 32 in validation datasetValidityEPOCEPOC can be pre-predicted by using only heartbeat data during exercise